Given 2n items, determine whether a majority element (one occuring n+1 times) exists. You are allowed one pass over the data (which means you can read the elements in sequence, and that's it), and exactly TWO units of working storage.The solution is incredibly elegant, and dates back to the early 80s. I'll post the answer in the comments tomorrow, if it hasn't been posted already.
Update: A technical point: the problem is a promise problem, in that you are promised that such an element exists. Or, in the non-promise interpretation, you are not required to return anything reliable if the input does not contain a majority element.